Flexibles: Deformation-Aware 3D-Printed Tangibles for Capacitive Touchscreens

We introduce Flexibles: 3D-printed flexible tangibles that are deformation-aware and operate on capacitive touchscreens. Flexibles add expressive deformation input to interaction with on-screen tangibles. Based on different types of deformation mapping, we contribute a set of 3D-printable mechanisms that capture pressing, squeezing, and bending input with multiple levels of intensities. They can be integrated into 3D-printed objects with custom geometries and on different locations. A Flexible is printed in a single pass on a consumer-level 3D printer without requiring further assembly. Through a series of interactive prototypes, example applications and a technical evaluation, we show the technical feasibility and the wide applicability of Flexibles.



  • Martin Schmitz
  • Jürgen Steimle
  • Jochen Huber
  • Niloofar Dezfuli
  • Max Mühlhäuser


  • David Fischer
  • Alexander Hendrich
  • Daniel Kauth
  • Jens Krüger
  • Andreas Leister
  • Andre Pfeifer
  • Max Stachalski