UBY – A Large-Scale Unified Lexical-Semantic Resource

UBY is a large-scale lexical-semantic resource for natural language processing (NLP) based on the ISO standard Lexical Markup Framework (LMF). UBY combines a wide range of information from expert-constructed and collaboratively constructed resources for English and German. Currently, UBY integrates 12 resources in two languages by linking them pairwise at the word sense level:

English WordNet, Wiktionary, OntoWiktionary, Wikipedia, FrameNet and VerbNet,

German Wikipedia, Wiktionary, OntoWiktionary, GermaNet and IMSLex-Subcat, and multilingual OmegaWiki.

Most UBY related software is developed open source on GitHub.

We offer UBY databases with open resources for download:

There is also a Semantic Web version of UBY called lemonUby, created in collaboration with John McCrae (CITEC, Universität Bielefeld) and Christian Chiarcos (ACoLi, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main). Find out more on the lemonUby website.



We provide a commented list of selected UBY related publications on the Publications page.


UBY contains interoperable lexicons represented in a standard-compliant format called UBY-LMF.

Visual Browser

The UBY Web Interface is currently being revised. Find out more about the redesign of the visualization component – the Visual Browser.


Core group (In alphabetical order):

  • Dr. Judith Eckle-Kohler
  • Prof. Dr. Iryna Gurevych, Principal Investigator
  • Dr. Silvana Hartmann
  • Dr. Michael Matuschek
  • Dr. Christian M. Meyer
  • Dr. Tristan Miller

Further members (in alphabetical order):

  • Michael Bugert
  • Yevgen Chebotar
  • Dr. Kostadin Cholakov
  • Dr. Richard Eckart de Castilho
  • Than-Le Ha
  • Mohamed Khemakhem
  • Masoud Kiaeeha
  • Zijad Maksuti
  • Dr. Hatem Mousselly-Sergieh
  • Tri-Duc Nghiem
  • Daniil Sorokin
  • Christian Wirth